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Ægypten/Egypt
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Pyramiderne
Keops
, Kefrens & Mykerinos
på Gizaplateauet

  Keopspyramiden er et af antikkens syv, og endnu eksisterende, underværker*. Keopspyramiden er bygget af 2,3 millioner stenblokke. Pyramiden var oprindeligt beklædt med polerede kalkstens- og granitplader, som det kan ses på toppen af Kefrens pyramiden. Pyramiden har tre gravkamre. Det er blevet beregnet at pyramidens grundflade er af et sådant omfang, at den kan rumme Peterskirken, katedralerne i Firenze og Milano, St. Paul's katedralen i London og Westminster Abbey. 

*Den antikke verdens syv vidundere: Keopspyramiden i Giza. Hængende haver i Babylon. Zeusstatue i Olympia. Artemistempel i Efesos. Mausoleum i Halikarnassos. Kolossen på Rhodos. Fyrtårn i Alexandria.
   
  The three Pyramids of the Giza Plateau Khufu (Greek Cheops), Khafre (Greek Chephren) and Menkaure (Greek Mykerinus), the great Khufu pyramid is the last survivor of the seven wonders of the ancient world*. The great pyramid of Khufu contains 3 million blocks of stone, some of them weighing thirty tons, it is 241 meters square in plan, and 153 meters high. The pyramid has three burial chambers - at the centre of it the Pharaoh planned his inner chamber where his mummy was to lie in splendour for eternity. It has been calculated that St. Peters Cathedral in Rome, the cathedrals of Florence and Milan, St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey could fit inside Khufu's pyramid.
   
  *The seven wonders of the ancient world: The Khufu Pyramid of Giza. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The Colossus of Rhodes. The Lighthouse of Alexandria.
.
"This is the tomb of Kheops, Pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, four thousand five hundred years ago. Here is the great pyramid which he built to defend  himself against death..."  ... "... He achieved the building of the highest monument then known to man." ... "At the foot of this Pyramid, in the rocka temple was built and there were kept the barges of Kheops, the barges of night. In these large wooden vessels the dead Pharaoh could continue his voyage in darkness, towards eternity. But all that remains of him is a small ivory figure showing a noble face: the aquiline nose, the determined jaw and the hieroglyphs representing the name he gave to his pyramid: "Kheops dominates the Horizon". ("The nocturnal magic of the Pyramids", Arabian Republic of Egypt-Ministry of Culture", 1961")
 
 

"I have seen every
sunrise which the mind
of man recalls"

  Sfinxen og Kefrenspyramiden der er ca. 1 meter lavere en Keopspyramiden - Kefrens var Keops' barnebarn (Mykerinos var Kefrens søn). Sfinxen, med Kefrens ansigtstræk, er den største af de ægyptiske sfinxer, den blev udhugget af en kalkstensklippe på stedet. Sfinxen vogter helligdommene, gravområdet - ansigtet var malet blåt, rødt og grønt. 
 

Sfinxen fortæller

"Ved hvert nyt daggry ser jeg solguden stige op over Nilens bred i det fjerne. De første lysstråler sender han til mit ansigt, som vender mod ham. Og i femtusinde år har jeg set alle solopgange mennesket kan huske. Jeg så Ægyptens historie i dens første glød, ligesom jeg i morgen skal se en ny flamme brænde mod øst. Jeg er den trofaste vogter ved min herres fod - så trofast, så årvågen, så nær ham, at han gav mig sit ansigt. Jeg er en pharaos lige, og jeg er ham, pharaoen. Gennem tiderne er jeg blevet givet mange navne af mine beundre." ... "Men navnet som er blevet mit, er det, som en græsk rejsende gav mig: Historiens fader, Herodot. Han kaldte mig Sphinx, som var jeg hans landsmand. Og det navn er nu mit." ... "Tæt ved Nilen vogter jeg over Gizaplateauet, over alle monumenterne de beskedne og de monumentale. De er grave". ("The nocturnal magic of the Pyramids", Arabian Republic of Egypt-Ministry of Culture", 1961").
  Great Sphynx of Giza with Khafre's pyramid in the background. The head of the sphynx is believed to be modeled after the pharaoh Khafre, the sphynx guards the Pyramids.
.
SPHINX: "With each new dawn I see the Sun-god rise on the far bank of the Nile. His first ray is for my face, which I turned towards him. And for five thousand years I have seen all the suns men can remember come up in the sky. I saw the history of Egypt in its first glow, as tomorrow I shall see the east burning with a new flame. I  am the faithful warden at the foot of his Lord - so faithful, so vigilant, so near him that he gave me his face for my own. I am a Pharaoh's companion, and I am he, the Pharaoh. Through the ages I received many names from the people who came to me in adoration." ...
"But the name which has remained with me is that given to me by a Greek traveller: the Father of History, Herodotus. He called me Sphinx, as if I were from his land. And that name is now mine." ... "Close to the Nile I watch over the plateau of Gizah, over all its monuments, of modest or fantastic height. They are tombs."  ("The nocturnal magic of the Pyramids", Arabian Republic of Egypt-Ministry of Culture", 1961").
 
...
Zosers trinpyramide tilskrevet arkitekten Imhotep. I gravområdet i Sakkara, der er Memphis' dødeby, er der omkring 60 pyramider. 
.
The Step Pyramid of Djozer/Djoser, Saqqara, attributed to the architect Imhotep.
...
 
1 Ti's mastaba fundet i 1865, er den største privatgrav i Sakkara. Foran statuen af Ti er et offerbord. Gravens mange vægrelieffer har været en væsentlig kilde til viden om dagliglivet i Det Gamle Rige (3.-6. dynasti, 2649–2150 f.Kr.) Vægrelieffet "Hr. Ti på rejse gennem papyrussumpene"  viser det hektiske daglige liv hos højere embedsmænd i 5. dynasti samt billeder af bondens, håndværkerens og fiskernes arbejde samt plante- og dyrelivet i Nildalen.
.The mastaba of Ti, discovered i 1865, is the largest private tomb at Saqqara. In front of the statue of Ti is an offering table. The tombs wall-painting was an important source of information on everyday life in the Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3–6, c. 2649–2150 B.C.) 
2 Adelsmandsgrav/The tomb of a nobleman.
 
The Narmer Palette
1-2 Museum i Memphis opført til kolossalstatuen af Ramses II den mest berømte af faraonerne. Museet er i to etager, omgang øverst giver overblikket over statuen.  
Grundlæggeren af 1. dynasti, kong Narmer (Menes)* gjorde Memphis til sin hovedstad, da han forenede Øvre og Nedre Ægypten. Memphis er i dag to landsbyer Mitrahina og Badrashein, museet liggger i Mitrahina.
The Open Air Museum at Memphis houses the Colossus of Ramses/Ramesses II, aka Ramesses the Great, the most famous of the Pharaohs. The statue is carved from limestone.
Memphis, the Ancient Capital of Egypt, was founded c. 3100 B.C. by Narmer (Menes)*, the king who united Upper and Lower Egypt.
Memphis today is located around the small villages of Mit Rahina and Al Badrashein, the museum is located in Mit Rahina.
3 *Narmerpaletten på museet i Cairo, ca. 3200 f.Kr., er det første historiske dokument i verden, der beretter historien om foreningen af Øvre og Nedre Ægypten. Paletten kaldes også Narmers sminkepalet, ud fra en teori om at paletten blev anvendt til at knuse farver til udsmykning af gudestatuer.
*King Narmers' Palette, c. 3200 B.C., the first historical document in the world which tell the story of the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. The palet aka King Narmes Cosmetic Palette, should have been used to grind cosmetics to adorn the statues of the gods.
4 Palmelunden i Memphis/The palm grove, Memphis.
5-6 I palmelunden i Memphis (nu landsbyen Mitrahina) står Alabastersfinxen, den har formentlig været en af de to vagtfigurer ved sydindgangen til det næsten forsvundne ptah-tempel i Karnaktemplet i Luxor.
 The Alabaster Sphynx, the palm grove, Memphis,  may have stood outside of the Temple of Ptah at Karnak in Luxor along with the Colossus of Ramses II. 
 
Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel, beliggende omkring 40 km fra grænsen til Sudan, er to stemtempler bygget af farao Ramses II "den Store", der regerede i Nubien (nu øvre Ægypten) fra 1304-1237 f.Kr. Ramses II's tempel var først og fremmest indviet til solguden Re-Harakhte og hans dronning Nefertaris tempel til Hathor, gudinden for kærlighed, musik og skønhed. Hovedtemplets massive facade er domineret af fire siddende kolossalstatuer af Ramses. I 1960'erne da blev Aswandæmningen blev bygget var templerne truet af oversvømmelse og UNESCO organiserede en flytning. 

Abu Simbel
is two rock temples built by Pharaoh Ramesses II "the Great", who ruled from 1304-1237 BC in Nubia, now in Egypt, near the border of Sudan. The temple of Ramesses II was primarily dedicated to the sun god Re-Harakhte, and that of his wife, Nefertari was dedicated to Hathor, the goddess of love, music and beauty. The massive facade of the main temple is dominated by four seated colossal statues of Ramesses. Originally carved into and out of the sandstone cliffs of the Nile River, the site was threatened in the 1960s when the Aswan Dam was proposed, and the temple was cut out of the rock, lifted above the floodplain and rebuilt in an appropriate location for preservation. 
 

Guder/Gods

 
 
 
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