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Op Art 1960'erne 
&  Kinetisk kunst
Agam, Yaacov
Calder, Alexander
Saint Phalle, Niki de

Tinguely, Jean
Vasarely, Victor
Op Art eller Optical Art var en malemåde som anvendtes af europæiske og amerikanske kunstnere i 1960'erne.
Stilen har rødder i de Stijl, futurismen og konstruktivismen.
Op Art or Optical Art, was a painting style used by European and American artists during the 1960s.
The style can
trace its roots back to
de Stijl, Futurism and Constructivism.
Billeder genereret ved hjælp af KI/Image generated by means of AI.
Piet Mondrian, "Komposition med rød, blå, sort, gul og grå", 1921, MoMA, New York.
Piet Mondrian, "Composition with Red, Blue, Black, Yellow, and Gray", 1921, MoMA, New York.
De Stijl var en nederlandsk kunstnersammenslutning, der blev stiftet i Leiden i 1917 af Theo van Doesburg og Piet Mondrian. De Stijls stil er neoplasticismen inspireret af kubismen. Neoplasticismens udtryk er plangeometrisk nonfigurativ, forenklet abstrakt, bestående af lige linjer og koloristisk af de tre primærfarver (gul, rød, blå) samt sort og hvidt.
De Stijl was a Dutch artist movement founded in Leiden in 1917 by Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian. De Stijl's style was Neoplasticism influenced by Cubism. Neoplaticism is a non-figurative plane geometrical simplified abstract art consisting of straight lines and the three primary colours (yellow, red, blue) and black and white.
Fælles for de Stijl, futurismen, konstruktivismen og Op art er bevægelsesillusionen, dynamikken og elementer som lige linjer, geometriske former, sort og hvid og klare farver.
Comon to de Stijl, Futurism, Constructivism and Op Art are the illusion of motion, dynamics and elements such as straight lines, geometrical forms, black and white and bright colours.
Giacomo Balla, "Dynamikken af en hund i snor" (Dinamismo di un cane al guinzaglio), 1912, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York.
Giacomo Balla, "Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash" (Dinamismo di un cane al guinzaglio), 1912, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York.
Futurismen var en kunstnerisk bevægelse i Italien i perioden 1909-1918 grundlagt af den italienske digter Filippo Tommaso Marinetti der proklamerede: "Et brølende automobil er smukkere end den vingede sejrsgudinde" eller "En bil i fuld fart er smukkere end Nike fra Samotrake" og "Vi vil forherlige krigen - verdens eneste hygiejne...".
Futuristerne ville udtrykke maskinalderens teknik, effektivitet, fart og tempo - de skildrede bevægelse i deres billeder ved at gentage en form, f.eks. kørende biler eller gående mennesker. Det mest berømte billede er Giacomo Ballas "Dynamikken af en hund i snor" fra 1912.
Futurism was an artistic movement in Italy between 1909-1918 founded by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who declared "... a roaring car… is more beautiful than The Victory of Samothrace" and "We will glorify war - the world's only hygiene".
Futurists tried to express the energy and values of the machine age - they expressed motion in their paintings by repetition of forms e.g. wheeled traffic or walking people. The most famous painting is "Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash", 1912, by Giacomo Balla.
Vladimir Tatlin model af "Tatlins Tårn" eller "Monumentet for 3. Internationale".
Vladimir Tatlin model of "Tatlin’s Tower" or "The Monument to the Third International".
Konstruktivisme er betegnelsen for en russisk nonfigurativ kunstretning og arkitektur, der er samtidig med Bauhaus Skolen i Weimar, grundlagt i 1919 af Walter Gropius, og grundlaget for funktionalismen. "Tatlins Tårn" fra 1920 fremhæves altid som det mest typiske eksempel på konstruktivisme. Det var en monumental bygning skabt af den russiske kunstner og arkitekt Vladimir Tatlin, men blev aldrig opført. Den var planlagt til opførelse i Petrograd (nu Skt. Petersborg) efter Revolutionen i 1917 som hovedkvarter og monument for Komintern (3. Internationale). Konstruktivisterne skabte en udtryksform, en collage, som indeholdt en fjerde dimension, nemlig bevægelse/tid ud over de tre gængse dimensioner bredde, højde og dybde.

Constructivism was an artistic and architectural Russian movement (1919-1934), non-figurative art contemporary with the Bauhaus School i Weimar, founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius, in which a basis for Functionalism was made. Always mentioned as the most typical architectural example of Constructivism is "Tatlin's Tower" from 1920. It was a monumental building envisioned by the Russian artist and architect Vladimir Tatlin, but never built. It was planned to be erected in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, as the headquarters and monument of the Comintern (the Third International). The constructivist created a new mode of expression, a collage, containing a time/motion aka the fourth dimension.

Kunstnere, også de antikke grækere og romere, har altid skabt en illusion af den synlige virkelighed ved brug af de grundlæggende geometriske principper. De gamle teknikker blev genopdaget af renæssancemalerne, der eksperimenterede med optisk illusion for at få en plan flade til at fremtræde tredimensional. Den optiske illusion fortsattes af manieristerne, barokmalerne og så fremdeles.
Kunstnere som impressionisten Claude Monet, impressionisten og pointillisten Georges Seurat og postimpressionisten Paul Cézanne inspirerede Op Art kunstnerne. Nogle gange er impressionismen blevet betegnet optisk realisme på grund af den næsten videnskabelige interesse i optiske virkemidler og forsøget med lyset og dets effekter. Impressionisternes motto var "det menneskelige øje er et utroligt instrument".
Op Art er et abstrakt intellektuelt og systematisk udtryk, der gør brug af de geometriske former og udnytter de optiske virkemidler, den fysiske og psykologiske synsproces, og det medfører optisk bedrag og danner billeder, som giver indtryk af en flade i evig bevægelse, et dynamisk udtryk. Farverne bruges til at skabe visuelle effekter så som efterbilleder eller
trompe l'oeil. Billeder og skulpturer skabt af sorte og hvide planer eller kontrasterende farver synes at vibrere eller flimre.
I en artikel fra oktober 1964 i Time magazine med titlen
"Op Art: Pictures that attack the eye" blev Op Art anvendt om billeder, der havde fokus på manipulation af øjet. Ideen med Op Art var et poetisk spil med lys der forvirrede øjet og ikke nogen visuel irritation. Det var hensigten at kaste lys over det faktum at øjet kan snyde beskueren til at se ting, der ikke er der, og hvis visuel illusion kan snyde øjet så kan ord og propaganda også. Op Art tragtede efter at nedbryde barriererne mellem kunst og teknologi så vel som at etablere forbindelse mellem forskellige grene af videnskab så som optik (læren om lysets natur og anvendelser) og kybernetik ("styringskunst"). Det betød en ny anvendelse af form og figur inkluderende industriel æstetik.
Going further back it is possible to see a natural progression which lead to Modern Art movements, to Op Art. One can say that artists, even the ancient Greeks and Romans, created illusions of visual reality by using the basic geometric principles. The ancient techniques was rediscovered by the Renaissance painters who experimented with optical illusions so a flat surface could appear three-dimensional. The optical illusions were continued by the Mannerist painters, the Baroque painters and so on.
Artists such as the Impressionist Claude Monet, (1840-1926), the Impressionist and Pointillist Georges Seurat (1859-1891) and the Postimpressionist Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) have inspired the Op Artist with there theories of optics. Sometimes Impressionism is called Optical Realism because of its almost scientific interest in the actual visual experience and effect of light, and movement on appearance of objects. The Impressionist motto was: "human eye is a marvelous instrument". Optical Art is a method of painting, it is abstract art using geometrical forms to create an optical illusion, it is dynamic visual art. Colours are used in creating visual effects, such as afterimages and trompe l'oeil. Paintings and sculptures created of black and white planes or contrasting colours seem to move and vibrate.

Time magazine gave in an article called "Op Art: Pictures that attack the eye" published in October 1964, the term "Op Art" to paintings that focused on manipulation of the eye. The idea of Op Art was poetic play with light, to confuse the eye, and not visual irritations, and it was to highlight the fact that the eyes can trick the mind in to seeing things that are not there, and that if visual illusions can trick the eye so can words and propaganda. Op Art strived to break down the barriers between art and technology, as well as to establish relationships between the various branches of science, such as optics and cybernetics. It embodies new uses of form and shape, including industrial aesthetics. 
OP ART: PICTURES THAT ATTACK THE EYE, TIME THE WEEKLY NEWS MAGAZINE October 23, 1964
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Op Art indeholder alle ingredienserne til en optometrists mareridt.
Op Art contains all the ingredients of an optometrist's nightmare.
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Optical Art er dette års kjolelængde.
Optical Art is this year's dress length.
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Op Art fascinerer på samme måde som et kalejdoskop fascinerer et barn.
Op Art fascinates the way a kaleidoscope does to a child.
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Dets faldgrube er at fascinationen går over til at være gentagelse og kedsommelighed.
Its pitfall is that fascination often turns, by repetition, to boredom.
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Op Art er fundamentalt et stillestående optisk fænomen som trælbinder og betager øjet.
Op Art are the essentially static visual phenomena that enslave and enthrall the eye.
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Vi anser os selv for tekniske eksperter, i middelalderlig forstand, mere end kunstnere.
We consider ourselves technicians, in the medieval sense, rather than artists.
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Optik er et redskab, som perspektiv var det engang.
Optics is a tool, as perspective once was.
Er Op Art synonym med Kinetisk kunst? ja og nej.

Kinetisk kunst har rødder i russisk avantgarde, og betegner kunst, der opererer med bevægelse, virkelig eller tilsyneladende.
En enkel forklaring er at både Op Art og Kinetisk kunst er optaget af ideen om at skabe bevægelsesillusion på en plan flade. Imidlertid er kinetisk kunst først og fremmest kunst som indeholder bevægelige dele eller er afhængig at bevægelse, f.eks. Alexander Calders mobiler som bevæges enten ved luftstrømme eller elektronisk eller magnetisk.
Kinetisk kunst stammer fra de russiske konstruktivister herunder Naum Gabo (1890-1977), der var pioneren inden for stilen. Også den ungarske maler, fotograf og Bauhaus professor
László Moholy-Nagy var inspireret af konstruktivismen og en stor forkæmper for integration af teknologi og industri i kunsten. 
Fremkomsten af Op Art og kinetisk kunst i begyndelsen af 1960'erne viste en stor interesse for objektivitet og videnskabelige eksperimenter. Fascineret af de fysiske love for lyset har en hel generation af kunstnere udforsket visuelle fænomener og principper for perception.
Is Op Art synonymous with Kinetic Art? The answer is Yes or No.  
A simple explanation is that both Op Art and Kinetic Art concentrate on the idea of creating illusion of movement on a flat plane.
Kinetic art is first and foremost art that contains moving parts or depends on motion for its effect, e.g. Alexander Calder’s mobiles that are moved either by air currents or by some artificial means - usually electronic or magnetic. Kinetic Art originated in Russia by Constructivists such as the Russian sculptor Naum Gabo (1890-1977), a pioneer of Kinetic Art. Also the Hungarian painter, photographer and Bauhaus-professor
László Moholy-Nagy was highly influenced by Constructivism and a strong advocate of the integration of technology and industry into the arts.
The emergence of Op art and kinetic art in the early 1960s evinced a strong interest in objectivity and in scientific experiment. Fascinated by the physical laws of light and optics, a whole generation of artists devoted themselves to explore visual phenomena and principles of perception.
KUNSTNERE/ARTISTS
Vasarely, Victor
Vasarely Múzeum, Budapest.
Victor Vasarely (Vásárhelyi Győző) (1906-1997). Ungarsk-fransk kunstner. Op Art kunstens fader - retningens ledende teoretiker og dens mest opfindsomme praktiker. Vasarely blev født i Pécs i Ungarn, han døde i Paris. Fra 1925-27 studerede han ved kunstakademiet i Budapest, og derefter studerede han under Sándor Bortnyik på Mühely (Budapests Bauhaus) - på Mühely fik Vasarely kendskab til Klees og Kandinskys abstrakt-geometriske kunst samt Wilhelm Ostwalds farvelære. Vasarely bosatte sig i Paris i begyndelsen af 1930'erne, og han giftede sig med Claire Spinner, sammen fik de to sønner. I Paris arbejdede Vasarely som grafiker, og udførte her sit første og det første Op Art billede "Zebra", bestående af buede sorte og hvide striber. De følgende år udforskede han de optiske effekter i sine grafiske arbejder, og i løbet af de næste to årtier udviklede Vasarely sin egen naturvidenskabelige stil af geometrisk abstrakt kunst - malerier, tegninger og konstruktioner i sort-hvid. I 1950'erne indførte han nye materialer i sine billeder så som glas og aluminium. I 1955 publiserede han sit "Gule Manifest" (Manifeste Jaune), han var klar over at staffelimaleriet var umoderne og foreslog nødvendigheden af en ensartethed i den plastiske kunst. Da han opfandt Op Art i 1957, forestillede han sig, at kunsten fik en ny funktion, han konkluderede at et kunstværk ikke er en refleksion af en indre verden, men snarere er det en genstand, som er resultatet af et arbejde, hvis eneste berettigelse er, at det giver skønhed og glæde til mennesket og er medvirkende til fred og harmoni. Billedet "Vega" fra 1957 ligner et forvredet skakbræt, opkaldt efter den klareste stjerne i stjernebilledet Lyren, et billede i bevægelse. I slutningen af 1960'erne havde han stor succes med Op Art udstillingen "Lumière et mouvement" på Musee d'Art Moderne i Paris. I 1970 indviede Vasarely sit eget museum Musee Vasarely i Château de Gordes i Vaucluse i Sydfrankrig. Han modtog mange kunst- og ærespriser bl.a. blev han udnævnt til fransk æreslegionær og æresborger i New York, han modtog Guggenheim prisen, kunstkritikerprisen i Bruxelles og en guldmedalje på Milano Triennalen. 
En fransk astronaut medbragte 157 tryk af Vasarely om bord i det Sovjetiske rumfartøj Salyut 7 i 1982. I 1987 blev Vasarely Museet i Budapest i Ungarn indviet, museet ejer en stor samling af hans arbejder samt arbejder af andre ungarske kunstnere, der arbejdede udenfor landet.
Victor Vasarely (Vásárhelyi Győző) (1906-1997), Hungarian artist, the father of Optical Art, the style's leading theorist and its most inventive practician, a man of science who understood ahead of everybody else how technology would radically change our world, an intuition that he projected into his works. An artist and socialist whose goal was to create designs that were universal, to produce an art that could be mass produced and affordable for everyone. A man who was fascinated with an art of pure visual perception without traditional themes. A man whose works are represented at major museum all over the world. A man who received many artistic awards and honorary awards, e.g. he was awarded the rank of Officer in the French Legion of Honor and honorary citizen of New York, he received the Guggenheim Prize and the Art Critics Prize in Brussels, and he won a gold medal at the Milan Triennale.
Vasarely was born in Pécs in 1906 and died in Paris in 1997 at the age of 91. He spent his childhood and teenage years living in Pöstyén (now Pieštany, Slovakia) until his family moved to Budapest in 1919. In 1925 after finishing secondary school he studied medicine at the University of Budapest. Throughout his early life Vasarely found himself drawn more towards the sciences than the arts. In 1927 he decided to change direction completely. He abandoned medicine to learn traditional academic painting in Budapest, first at the private Podolini-Volkmann Academy, and in 1929 he enrolled at Alexander Bortnyik's Műhely Academy, then widely recognized as the center of Bauhaus studies in Budapest
. Bortnyik followed the principles of the Bauhaus School of Dessau.

The German Bauhaus
(1919-1932) was the most important school of architecture, art and design of the 20th century. Cooperation between architects, painters, sculptors, designers and craftsmen - an interplay between art and technology should create a harmonic whole, and all sorts of applied art and artistic products should be summarized into a common manifesto. Design could improve society, not just be a reflection of society. Bauhaus' style was characterized by economy of method, a strict geometry of form and design that took into account the nature of the materials employed.
The Bauhaus thoughts had an enormous impact in Vasarely’s work, leaving an indelible mark in his creation up until the end. It was during this period that he initiated himself into the tendencies of Constructivism and discovered Abstract Art. At Mühely he became acquainted with the abstract geometric art of Klee and Kandinsky and Wilhelm Ostwald’s colour system.
These years studying medicine were far from wasted though as the formal scientific training provided him with a strong sense of scientific method and objectivity - something that stood him in good stead throughout his artistic career.
In 1930 Vasarely settles in Paris, where he worked as a graphic artist for various advertising agencies, and he began his "Zebra" studies. In the following years he explored optical effects in his graphic works, and in the next two decades he developed his own (scientific) abstract geometric style - paintings, drawings and designs in black and white.
In 1931 he married Claire Spinner, who was also an artist, she gave birth to their two sons André and Jean-Pierre, the latter became an artist known as Yvaral, he died in 2002, he also worked in the fields of Op Art.
From the 1950's on, Vasarely insistently questioned himself about the role of the artist in society and eagerly searched for a way to create a social art, accessible and available to all.

In the 1950s he introduced new materials in his paintings e.g. glass and aluminium, and completed several architectural integrations e.g. the ceramic wall from 1954 "Tribute to Malevich" at the University of Caracas, Venezuela - (Integration of Art in the City). In 1955 he published his "Manifeste jaune" ("Yellow Manifesto") - he was aware of that the easel painting was outdated and suggested the necessity of homogeneity in plastic art. He imagined a new function of art, he concluded that a work of art was not a reflection of the inner world of the artist, more like objects, a result of a work - the only justification of art was to give beauty and joy to human beings and to create peace and harmony. During the 1960’s and 1970’s his optical images became part of the popular culture, having a deep impact on architecture, computer science, fashion and the way we now look at things in general. Even though he achieved great fame he insisted on making his art accessible to everyone. His motto was "Art for all".
In 1965, he participated in the "Responsive Eye" exhibition at
MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, New York, dedicated exclusively to "Optical Art". It instituted a new relationship between artist and spectator, where the observer cannot remain passive, he is free to interpret the image in as many visual scenarios he can conceive. Received with great acclaim, the press and the public hailed Vasarely as the inventor and creator of "Op-Art". In the late 1960s he achieved great success in the Op Art exhibition "Lumière et mouvement" at Musée d'Art Moderne in Paris.
1970 he inaugurated his own Museum - Musée Vasarely in
Château de Gordes in Vaucluse in the South of France. After his death in 1997 law of wills and succession caused that his paintings were removed from the museum.
In 1982 The French-Soviet team of cosmonauts of the Salyut 7 transported into space 154 of Vasarely’s prints specially created for such event. The prints were later sold for the benefit of UNESCO.
Vasarely remains one of the pillars of contemporary art for having lead abstract geometric painting into its extraordinary culmination under the name of Op Art or Kineticism. His entire works are characterized by great coherence, from the evolution of his early graphic art to his determination to promote a social art.
In 1960 Vasarely said "The end of personal art for a sophisticated elite is near, we are heading straight towards a global civilization, governed by Sciences and Techniques. We must integrate visual sensibility into a correct world
" … "The art of tomorrow will be a common collective treasure or it will not be art at all"
.
In 1987 the Vasarely Museum in Budapest was inaugurated, the museum houses a great collection of his works and works by other Hungarian artists, who worked outside the country.
Victor Vasarely - PERIODS
1
Alexander Bortnyik's Mühely Academy, Budapest (1929-1930). It was during this period that Vasarely initiated himself into the tendencies of Constructivism and discovered Abstract Art.
"Blue Study", 1929.
2
Early Graphic Period (1929-1946). Vasarely experimented with textural effects, perspective, shadow and light.

"Zebra", 1938.

3
Wrong Ways aka Fausses Routes
(1935-1947)
. Vasarely was influenced by Cubism and Surrealism. He focused on still lives, landscapes and portraits.
"Model", 1946
.
4
Belle-Isle Period (1947-1958). A turning point in Vasarely's career - a transformation of natural elements into abstract art, a return to nature by using geometrical forms such as the oval which symbolizes the oceanic feeling.
"Siliceous Stone"
.
5
Denfert Period (1951-1958). Primarily paintings influenced by the walls at the Denfert-Rochereau metro station located near Arcueil, where Vasarely lived for more than 30 years.
"Chillan", 1952
.
6
Cristal-Gordes Period (1948-1958). "Homage à Malewitsch" marks the turn towards kineticism. The Russian artist Kasimir Malewitsch/Malevich was one of the pioneers of Abstract Art, the founder of Suprematism, a style using only a few colours and few basic geometric shapes. By using strict, simple shapes and colours, Malevich could go beyond superficial appearances to attain a deeper level of meaning. In 1913 he painted the epoch-making "Black Square" a black square on a ground of white.
"Homage à Malewitsch", 1952-1958
.
7
Mixed Compositions.
"Pensar 5", 1956-68 (Pensar Spanish verb, to think).
8
Black-White Period (1950-1965). In this period he developed the basic elements of Op-Art.

"Vega", 1957, looks like a twisted chessboard, named after the brightest star in the constellation Lyra.

9
Planetary Folklore (From 1960). Brightly coloured shapes which led to the invention of his fine arts alphabet "Alphabet Plastique", a comprehensive "alphabet", a universal fine arts language to be understood by everyone, a step towards truly collective art.
"Alom", 1966
.
10
Hommage à L´Hexagone (1964-1976). Vasarely was attracted by cellular structure in a series of works belonging to "Homage to the hexagon" theme.
"Tridim C", 1968
.
11
Vonal Period (1964-1970). In the "Vonal" series, he revisited his earlier line studies (e.g. the Zebres series) and graphic works but this time making full use of colour.
"Boygo I", 1969
.
12
Expansive-Regressive Structures (From 1968 onwards).
"Vega Nor", 1969, shows the warmth of Vasarely's colours and the freshness. From his "Vega Period"
.
Calder, Alexander
Calder, Alexander (1898-1976). Amerikansk-fransk kinetisk kunstner. Calder er mest kendt for sine nonfigurative bevægelige monumentale kompositioner, mobiler samt figurer og portrætter af snoet metaltråd. Han er født nær Philadelphia i en kendt kunstnerisk familie. Hans far og bedstefar, der begge hed Alexander Calder, var skulptører og hans mor portrætkunstner.
Calder er uddannet som maskiningeniør og senere som kunstner i New York City fra 1923-26, hvor han studere maleri hos bl.a. John Sloan og George Luks. I 1927 rejste Calder til Paris. I begyndelsen skabte han små bevægelige træ- og metaltrådsfigurer, som han samlede til et miniaturecirkus med balancerende akrobater og brølende løver. Populariteten med "Cirkus Calder" bragte ham i kontakt med andre kunstneriske fornyere. Først i 1930'erne, inspireret af farver og kompositioner i
Piet Mondrians arbejder, skabte Calder sine skelsættende mobiler. Først var disse abstrakte skulpturer med motorer, senere skabte han mobiler der bevægede sig med vinden. I 1933 rejste Calder tilbage til USA, hvor hans abstrakt-organiske skulpturer både mobiler og stillestående, stabiler, vakte stor opsigt og anerkendelse. Efter 1950 tilbragte Calder noget af året i Frankrig. Han udstillede på Louisiana i 1969.
Calder, Alexander (1898-1976). American-French Kinetic artist. He was born in Lawton, Pennsylvania into a well-known family of artists. His father and grandfather, were also Alexander Calder, both sculptors, and his mother was a portrait artist. Calder received an engineering degree. From 1923-25 he attended the Art Students League in New York, studying briefly with Thomas Hart Benton and John Sloan. His first exhibition of paintings took place in 1926 at the Artist's Gallery in New York. Later that year he went to Paris. He created small movable figures made of wood and metal, which he gathered into a miniature-circus with acrobats and roaring lions. His popularity with "Circus Calder" established contact with the Paris avant-garde. In the 1930s, influenced by the work of Piet Mondrian, he executed his epoch-making mobiles. At first his abstract sculptures were provided with engines, later his mobiles moved simply by the wind. His moving sculptures were called mobiles, the stationary stabiles. In 1933 Calder returned to the US, where his abstract-organic sculptures (mobiles and stabiles) attracted attention. He exhibited with the Abstraction-Création group in Paris in 1933. In 1943, the Museum of Modern ArtNew York, gave him a solo exhibition. Every year since 1950 he spent several month in France.
Udvalgte værker/Selected works
"Genstand med røde runde skiver", 1931, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
"Object with Red Discs, 1931, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
"Rød skive - hvide prikker", 1960, Peggy Guggenheim Samlingen, Venedig/"Red Disc - White Dots", 1960, Guggenheim Collection, Venice.
"Le Guichet", (Billetkontoret), 1963, foran New York Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center Plaza.
"Le Guichet", (The Box Office), 1963, placed in front of the New York Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center Plaza, New York.
"Hoveder og hale" (Têtes et Queue), 1965, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin/"Heads and Tail" (Têtes et Queue), 1965, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
"Carmen", 1974, Museo Reina Sofía, Madrid.
"Uden titel", 1976, National Gallery of Art, East Building, Washington D.C./"Untitled", 1976, National Gallery of Art, East Building, Washington D.C.
Jean Tinguely & Niki de Saint Phalle
Kunstens Bonnie og Clyde/The Bonnie and Clyde of Art
Stravinsky springvandet med 16 skulpturer, der bevæger sig og springer med vand, repræsenterende værker af komponisten Igor Stravinsky. Udført i 1983 af Tinguely og Niki de Saint Phalle, Place Stravinsky ved Pompidoucentret i Paris.
The Stravinsky Fountain with 16 sculptures moving and spraying water, representing the works of the composer Igor Stravinsky. Executed in 1983 by Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle, Place Stravinsky next to Centre Georges-Pompidou in Paris.
Tinguely, Jean
(1925-1991). Schweizisk kunstner uddannet i Basel og inspireret af dadaisten Kurt Schwitters. Hans første soloudstilling var i 1954 i Paris. Tinguely er kendt for kinetiske arbejder med maskinlignende objekter. Han anvendte gamle hjul og andre genbrugsting, og hans arbejder kan betegnes "junk art". Tinguely var gift med Niki de Saint Phalle. Jean Tinguely Museet i Basel åbnede i 1996.
Saint Phalle, Niki de - en autodidakt outsider/A self-taught outsider
(1930-2002). Fransk skulptør, maler og instruktør, gift med med Jean Tinguely. I begyndelsen af 1960'erne fremstillede Saint Phalle "skydebilleder". Hun anbragte plastikposer med maling bag billeder og skulpturer. Poserne gik itu når der blev skudt på værkerne med et gevær af hende eller andre deltagere.
Et af hendes mest berømte arbejder er "Hun - en katedral", 1966, Moderna Museet, Stockholm. En gigantisk kvindefigur, en slags moder jord, 28 m lang og udført i Saint Phalles karakteristiske "Nana stil". Beskueren kan gå ind i skulpturen. Saint Phalles "Nana stil" var farverige frodige kvinder (nanas er slang for piger). I Fribourg i Schweiz kan ses værker af Saint Phalle og Tinguely på "Espace Jean Tinguely - Niki de Saint Phalle".
Jean Tinguely og Niki de Saint Phalle kaldte sig selv for "Kunstens Bonnie og Clyde".

Saint Phalle, Niki de (1930-2002)
. French sculptur, painter and filmmaker, married to Jean Tinguely. In the early 1960s she created "Shooting Paintings". She placed plastic bags filled with paint behind paintings and sculptures, the bags burst when the works were shot by a gun held by her or other participants.
One of her most famous works is "She - a Cathedral", 1966, Moderna Museet, Stockholm. A gigantic female figure, a earth mother, 28 meters long, carried out in Saint Phalle's characteristic Nana style. Nana is slang for girl. Works of Saint Phalle and Tinguely can be seen at "Espace Jean Tinguely - Niki de Saint Phalle" in Fribourg in Switzerland.
Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle called themselves "The Bonnie and Clyde of Art".
Udvalgte værker/Selected works
"Nana Baloon (eller Store Nana i bevægelse)", 1960'erne, Statens Museum for Kunst.
"Nana Baloon (or Big Nana in Motion)"
, 1960s, National Gallery of Denmark, Copenhagen.
"Skydebillede Den Amerikanske Ambassade", 1961, MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
"Shooting Painting American Embassy", 1961,
MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
"Nana", 1974, Hannover, Tyskland/"Nana", 1974, Hannover, Germany.
"Skytsenglen", 1997, Hovedbanegården i Zürich/"The Guardian Angel ", 1997, The Zurich Main Station.
Agam, Yaacov
Agam, Yaacov (1928). Israelsk maler og billedhugger, den førende eksponent for optisk og kinetisk kunst, bedst kendt for sine tredimensionale billeder og skulpturer. Agam var søn af en russisk rettroende rabbiner og forfatter. Som barn begyndte han at tegne til trods for religiøs forbud mod billedudtryk. Hans familie anerkendte kan kunstneriske evner, og i 1946 begyndte han på "Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design" i Jerusalem. Studier hos Mordecai Ardom, en tidligere elev i Bauhaus i Weimar. I 1950 kom Agam til Zurich og studerede hos Johannes Itten på kunsthåndværkerskolen, hvor han mødte Frank Lloyd Wright og Siegfried Giedion, og deres ideer om tidsdimensionen i kunst og arkitektur gjorde indtryk på ham. I 1951 flyttede Agam til Paris, hvor surrealisterne opdagede og beundrede ham. Hans første udstilling i "Galeri Craven" i Paris i 1953 viste kinetisk kunst og blev en kritikersucces. Max Ernst var den første, der købte et arbejde af Agam.
Agam, Yaacov (1928). Israeli Painter and Sculptor, son of a Russian rabbi and author. Although his religion was against drawing and painting, he was not forbidden to do so by his family, who acknowledged his talent. In 1946 he became a student at "Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design" in Jerusalem. In 1950 he went to Zurich and became a student of Johannes Itten at the "Art and Craft School", where he met Frank Lloyd Wright and Siegfried Giedion, whose ideas about the time-dimension in art and architecture impressed him. In 1951 he went to Paris, where his works were admired by the Surrealist artists. His first exhibition in "Galerie Craven" in Paris in 1953 shows kinetic art and became a success. Max Ernst was the first to buy one of his works. Agam became the leading exponent of optical and kinetic art, and is best known for his three-dimensional paintings and sculptures.
Udvalgte værker/Selected works
"Synthesis: Solfage Fusion", Serigraph from "Fusion suite", 1978.
Springvand, 2005, Dizengoff Square, Tel Aviv/Fountain, 2005, Dizengoff Square, Tel Aviv.
Springvand, La Défense, Paris/Fountain, La Défense, Paris.
ØVRIGE KUNSTNERE/OTHER ARTISTS
Graevenitz, Gerhard von (1934-1983)
Tysk kunstner/German artist.
"Kinetisk genstand: 37 hvide runde skiver på hvid baggrund", 1967, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
"Kinetic Object: 37 White Disks on White"
, 1967, Neue Nationalgalerie,
Berlin.
Sýkora, Zdeněk  (1920-2011)
Tjekkoslovakisk moderne abstrakt maler og skulptør og foregangsmand i anvendelsen af computergenereret kunst.
Czechoslovakian modern abstract painter and sculptor, and a pioneer in computer-generated art.
"Komposition", 1966, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
"Composition"
, 1966, Neue Nationalgalerie,
Berlin.
Riley, Bridget (1931)
Engelsk kunstner/English artist.
"Flygtende centrum", 1962, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
"Escaping Centre", 1962, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
"Blaze 1", 1962.
Uhlmann, Hans (1900-1975)
Tysk kunstner/German artist.
"Stålskulptur", 1956, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
"Steel Sculpture", 1956, Neue Nationalgalerie,
Berlin.
"Lille karrusel", 1958, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
"Small Merrry-Go-Round", 1958, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.
Escher, Maurits Cornelis (1898-1972)
Nederlandsk kunster/Dutch graphic artist.
Udsnit af "Udsigtstårn", 1958.
Detail of "Belvedere", 1958.
Albers, Joseph, (1888-1976)
Tysk-amerikansk kunstner/German-American artists.
"Helligdom", 1942, fra serien Grafisk Tektonisk.
"Sanctuary"
, 1942, from the series Graphic Tectonic
.

"Hyldest til kvadratet", 1949, (serie af billeder), Bottrop Museum, Tyskland.
"Homage to the square", 1949, Bottrop Museum, Germany.
"Homage to the Square: Soft Spoken"
, 1969.

Stanczak, Julian (1928-2017)
Polsk-amerikansk kunstner/Polish-American artist.
"Forbipasserende kontur", 1960'erne.
"Passing Contour", 1960s.
Mavignier, Almir de Silva (1925-2018)
Brasiliansk kunstner/Brazilian artist.

"To kvadrater", 1967.

"Two Squares", 1967. 

Anuszkiewicz, Richard (1930-2020)
Amerikansk kunstner/American artist.

"Dyb magentarød kvadrat", 1978.
"Deep Magenta Square", 1978.

Samt:
Francois Morrellet. Enirico Castellani. Heinz Mack. Carlos Cruz-Diez. George Rickey. Jesus Rafael Soto. Antonio Calderara. Günther Uecker. Piero Dorazio.
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